This is an ongoing project to capture the taxonomy of the entire cybersecurity industry.
The mapping project is a combination of visuals, definitions, and examples from each area of the ecosystem. Seeing the ecosystem from multiple views is the most practical approach to grappling with the enormity of it all.
A table of contents is available to help you navigate through the mapping. It's large, and there is no way to simplify it without losing important details.
Various image formats and source files are also available at the bottom. You're welcome to use them as you please.
For more background on the thought process behind the project, check out the introductory article:
I hope you find this useful as you build your understanding of cybersecurity and plot your course in the industry.
Cybersecurity, Privacy, and Trust
Overview: Measures, technologies, and policies employed to protect systems and sensitive information, ensure the confidentiality and control of personal data, and build confidence in the integrity and reliability of technological systems and processes.
Overview: Products and strategies to protect AI/ML systems and models from manipulation or attack.
Overview: Establishing and overseeing guidelines and practices to ensure the ethical, transparent, and accountable development and implementation of AI.
Overview: Practices and measures to protect LLM models from being exploited for malicious purposes, and to ensure their safe, ethical, and responsible use.
Overview: Protecting machine learning systems from attacks, manipulations, and vulnerabilities, ensuring the integrity, reliability, and confidentiality of ML models and their data
Overview: Practices and techniques used to secure applications from threats and vulnerabilities throughout the development lifecycle.
Example(s): Synopsys Application Security
Overview: Technologies to safeguard software applications from vulnerabilities and attacks across their development, deployment, and operational stages.
Overview: Processes and tools for preventing and monitoring malicious attacks and misuse of APIs.
Overview: Techniques and tools for assessing website bots and blocking malicious activity.
Overview: Integrating security practices and tools into the Continuous Integration (CI) and Continuous Deployment (CD) pipeline to protect software during the testing, build, and deployment processes.
Runtime Application Self-Protection (RASP)
Overview: Technology that integrates with an application to detect and prevent real-time attacks by analyzing behavior and context during execution.
Web Application Firewall (WAF)
Overview: Systems to protect web applications or APIs against exploits, bots, and attacks that compromise the security and availability of web applications.
Application Security Testing
Overview: The process of evaluating and examining software applications for security vulnerabilities and weaknesses.
Application Security Posture Management (ASPM)
Overview: The continuous process of assessing, improving, and monitoring the security state of software applications.
Application Security Orchestration and Correlation (ASOC)
Overview: Integration and automation of various application security tools and processes to enhance efficiency and effectiveness in identifying and mitigating vulnerabilities.
Dynamic Application Security Testing (DAST)
Overview: A method of testing applications for security vulnerabilities by simulating external attacks on a running application.
Overview: A testing technique that involves inputting random, malformed, or unexpected data into an application to detect coding errors and security vulnerabilities.
Infrastructure as Code (IaC) Security
Overview: Practices and tools used to ensure that the code and processes used to automate and manage IT infrastructure are secure and free from vulnerabilities.
Interactive Application Security Testing (IAST)
Overview: A testing approach that combines static and dynamic analysis to evaluate applications for vulnerabilities in real-time during testing and operation.
Mobile Application Security Testing (MAST)
Overview: The process of assessing and identifying security vulnerabilities in mobile applications.
Static Application Security Testing (SAST)
Overview: A method of analyzing code for security vulnerabilities without executing the application.
Software Supply Chain Security
Overview: The identification, analysis, monitoring, and mitigation of security risks from third party software vendors, packages, integrations, and other components.
Overview: Ensuring the use of software within an organization adheres to the terms and conditions outlined in its licensing agreements.
Overview: The process of analyzing dependencies for known vulnerabilities and security issues to ensure the security and integrity of an application's third-party components.
Overview: The process of digitally signing software to verify the author's identity and ensure that the code has not been altered or corrupted since it was signed.
Software Composition Analysis (SCA)
Overview: Processes to identify use of open source software in a codebase to evaluate security, quality, licensing, and other software supply chain risks.
Software Bill of Materials (SBOM)
Overview: A comprehensive inventory of all components, libraries, and modules used in an application, detailing their versions, licenses, and dependencies.
Blockchain and Web3
Overview: Tools for securing and managing risks on blockchain and Web3 platforms.
Overview: Financial markets where equity and debt are traded, facilitating capital raises by companies, investments by individuals and institutions, and mergers and acquisitions by strategic buyers and institutional investors.
Angel and Seed Investors
Overview: Independent individual investors or a group of individual investors who invest capital in early stage cybersecurity companies.
Overview: Advisors and intermediaries for financial transactions, including mergers, acquisitions, and large scale investments.
Overview: Late stage private equity firms and investment banks with significant portfolios of cybersecurity companies.
Overview: Institutional venture capital firms with a significant number of cybersecurity investments and exits.
Certifications and Training
Overview: Comprehensive cybersecurity awareness, education, and credentialing organizations covering one or more major cybersecurity domains.
Overview: Official cybersecurity professional credentialing programs offered by governing bodies.
Overview: Education and learning courses or materials about cybersecurity-related topics.
Consumer Security and Privacy
Overview: Practices and countermeasures to protect personal data and ensure the digital safety of consumers against unauthorized access, misuse, and threats.
Overview: Tools and protocols for protecting and anonymizing user internet traffic to conceal location, usage, and identity against network surveillance or traffic analysis.
Breach Notification Services
Overview: Services that help inform users if their personal information, such as email address or passwords, have been leaked in data breaches.
Overview: Protection of personal information and data of consumers, ensuring their right to control its collection, use, and sharing.
Identity Theft Protection
Overview: Services that monitor and restore the personal data of consumers in the event of abnormal activity and theft.
Personal Data Economy
Overview: Platforms that enable individuals to take ownership of their information and potentially profit from selling data.
Personal Information Removal
Overview: Services that centralize and automate the process of opting out and removing personal data from data brokers.
Personalized Managed Cybersecurity
Overview: A set of countermeasures and services designed to protect individuals from security threats.
Overview: Tools to help users understand and manage access to their private data.
Overview: Monitoring, influencing, and improving an individual's public perception and online presence.
Overview: Platforms for private messaging and information sharing through encrypted communication channels.
Overview: Illegal activities conducted online, including offenses like hacking, identity theft, and online fraud.
Advanced Persistent Threats (APT)
Overview: Organized groups of threat actors who gain unauthorized access to networks for political or economic reasons.
Overview: A network of compromised devices under the organized control of an attacker.
Overview: A hidden area of internet sites and services, accessible only from a specialized web browser or proxy.
Fraud and Scams
Overview: Content, phishing, spam, and other fraudulent activity intended to trick users into sharing sensitive information.
Example(s): Marketplace Fraud, Account Takeover (ATO), Employment Scams
Overview: Intrusive software developed by cybercriminals to steal data or damage systems and networks.
Overview: A specific type of malware and associated techniques for restricting access to data or other resources until a ransom is paid.
Spyware and Stalkerware
Overview: Tools that enable someone to spy on another person's digital activity without their knowledge.
Overview: Practices and technologies used to protect data from unauthorized access, corruption, or theft throughout its lifecycle.
Overview: Technologies to safeguard personal and organizational data from unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration, and destruction.
Overview: Tools, controls, and processes to protect databases from compromise.
Data Security Posture Management (DSPM)
Overview: A comprehensive approach to continuously identify, assess, and manage the security of data across an organization's entire digital landscape.
Overview: Identification, collection, and storage of electronic information for investigations and legal requests.
Insider Threat Detection
Overview: Identifying and mitigating risks posed by individuals within an organization who might misuse access to harm the organization or its data.
Public Key Infrastructure
Overview: Infrastructure to establish and manage public key encryption for user identities, device identities, and secure end-to-end communications.
Overview: Software to help companies protect digital content (videos, images, files, etc.) from unauthorized distribution and duplication.
Overview: Processes and technologies to reliably store, manage, and recover critical data in the face of disruptions, attacks, or failures.
Backup and Recovery
Overview: Processes and tools for creating, storing, and restoring copies of data to protect against data loss.
Overview: Processes, hardware, and facilities for maintaining data security and integrity.
Overview: Managing and safeguarding personal and sensitive information to ensure it is not misused or accessed without proper authorization.
Data Discovery and Classification
Overview: The process of scanning data sources to find and classify structured and unstructured data, with a focus on sensitive and/or regulated data.
Data Deidentification and Pseudonymity
Overview: Tools to redact and deidentify data for use by researchers, data scientists, and other parties without compromising the privacy of people in the dataset.
Overview: Messaging solutions to help employees and partners within an organization communicate securely.
Encryption and Tokenization
Overview: Processes and tools for transforming sensitive data into an encrypted or masked value.
Fraud and Transaction Security
Overview: Measures and technologies to protect financial transactions and sensitive data from fraudulent activities and unauthorized access.
Overview: Systems and processes to monitor, detect, prevent, and remediate fraudulent transactions and activities.
Overview: Coordinating and automating various fraud detection and prevention tools and processes to organize the response to fraudulent activities across multiple channels.
Overview: Continuous analysis of financial transactions to identify and prevent fraudulent activities, money laundering, and compliance violations.
Governance, Risk, and Compliance
Overview: Methods and technologies for managing an organization's overall governance, enterprise risk management, and compliance with regulatory requirements.
Overview: Processes and technologies to manage adherence to laws, regulations, standards, and ethical practices applicable to an organization's operations and activities.
Auditors and Assessors
Overview: Firms authorized to conduct independent reviews and certify compliance with regulations and standards.
Overview: Tools for automating compliance processes and continuous controls monitoring.
Overview: Official rules to enforce laws created by governments. Implemented and maintained by authorized government agencies.
Third Party Assurance
Overview: An examination of a service provider's services, internal controls, and risks conducted by a third party on behalf of customers. Results are documented in a compliance report.
Overview: Frameworks, policies, and processes that ensure an organization is managed effectively, ethically, and in a manner aligned with its objectives and stakeholders' interests.
Overview: Systems to automate and integrate enterprise, operational, and IT risk management processes and data.
Metrics and Dashboards
Overview: Tools used to track and display key performance indicators to measure cybersecurity risk and effectiveness.
Policies and Procedures
Overview: Written documents and tools for managing rules for individuals accessing an organization's systems and data.
Overview: A core information security function that defines and guides architectural requirements and design of security-relevant elements within an organization.
Overview: Materials and products to measure and improve the knowledge and understanding individuals have about cyber threats and the best practices to safeguard against them.
Segregation of Duties (SOD)
Overview: Automated enforcement of shared responsibilities among multiple people for execution of critical processes. Reduces fraud and errors.
Standards and Frameworks
Overview: Documented guidance for policies and controls to systematically manage security and risk.
Privacy Program Management
Overview: Policies, practices, and procedures to ensure an organization's handling of personal information complies with privacy laws and respects the rights of individuals.
Overview: Workflows and automation for various functions of a privacy program.
Overview: Systems and processes for notifying users about personal data collection and collecting explicit consent.
Overview: Tools to help organizations map data flows across the enterprise.
Data Subject Request Automation
Overview: Processes and tools to support individual requests for personal data and use under data privacy laws.
Privacy Information Managers
Overview: Information and updates for understanding global privacy laws and regulations.
Example(s): OneTrust DataGuidance
Overview: Tools to check websites to identify which cookies, beacons, and trackers are in use.
Overview: The process of identifying, assessing, and prioritizing risks to minimize, monitor, and control the probability or impact of unfortunate events.
Overview: Specialty business insurance for protection against cybersecurity-related losses, including data breaches, ransomware, and other incidents.
Cyber Risk Quantification
Overview: Assessment and quantification an organization's cybersecurity risk level.
Enterprise Risk Management
Overview: Identification, management, and remediation of company-wide risk at an executive level.
Third-Party Risk Management (TPRM)
Overview: Identifying, assessing, and mitigating risks associated with external entities like vendors, suppliers, and partners that an organization engages with.
Trust and Safety
Overview: Business practices, workflows, and tools used by online platforms to reduce the risk of users experiencing harm, fraud, abuse, and other negative behaviors.
Government and NGOs
Overview: Public and not-for-profit entities responsible for researching, creating, enforcing, and promoting policies, regulations, standards and initiatives to protect digital information and infrastructure from cyber threats and ensure data privacy.
Overview: Government agencies specializing in cybersecurity policy, research, and protection.
Example(s): Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Security Agency (NSA), Unit 8200
Overview: International government organizations specializing in cybersecurity policy, research, and protection.
Overview: Not-for-profit organizations specializing in cybersecurity policy, research, and protection.
Overview: Cybersecurity research and education programs at public and private universities.
Overview: Policies, technologies, and controls to protect and manage digital identities, ensuring secure access to systems and information while preventing unauthorized use.
Overview: Technology for verifying the identity of a user or entity before granting access.
Overview: Platforms for identifying, tracking, controlling, and managing user access to applications and infrastructure.
Overview: Use of physical or behavioral traits to authenticate and verify identity.
Customer Identity (CIAM)
Overview: Systems for controlling customer access to applications and managing customer profile information.
Overview: Government systems for digital proof of identity for citizens and organizations.
Identity Graphing and Resolution
Overview: Services that correlate online and offline identifiers with consumer identities to create an accurate view of customers.
Overview: A service used for verifying a user's identity based on life history or other data aggregated from public and proprietary data sources.
Know Your Business (KYB)
Overview: The process of verifying the identity and assessing the legitimacy of businesses, typically for compliance and risk management purposes.
Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA)
Overview: Authentication that replaces traditional passwords or combines two or more authentication requirements (e.g. password and one-time token) for increased security.
Overview: Verification of identities without the use of traditional passwords, instead relying on methods like biometrics, tokens, or cryptographic keys.
Overview: Tools to help users generate, store, and use secure passwords.
SaaS Identity Risk Management
Overview: Assessing, monitoring, and mitigating risks associated with user access and authentication in unmanaged SaaS applications.
Overview: Securely handling, storing, and accessing sensitive information like tokens and encryption keys for protecting access to applications and services.
Self-Service Password Reset (SSPR)
Overview: Toos that allow users to reset their passwords independently, typically through a series of authentication steps.
Overview: Sign in to third party sites using authentication from social networks.
Overview: Decentralized and user-centric identification systems in the blockchain and cryptocurrency space, enabling users to own and control their digital identities without relying on central authorities.
Overview: The process of granting or denying specific permissions and access rights to a user or entity based on their authenticated identity.
Overview: Services that compile and help verify employment, criminal, financial, and other records for people and organizations.
Overview: A security approach where access control decisions for multiple systems or applications are managed from a single, unified point of policy enforcement and management.
Data Access Governance
Overview: Systems for gaining visibility and enforcing access control policies on unstructured data (spreadsheets, documents, PDFs, etc.).
Overview: A repository for collecting information about users, devices, and resources for authentication and authorization. LDAP is a common standard for directory services.
Identity Governance and Administration (IGA)
Overview: Systems for administering accounts and credentials, access provisioning, and access reviews.
Identity Threat Detection and Response (IDTR)
Overview: Identifying, investigating, and mitigating malicious activities targeting user identities and credentials.
Overview: Identity stores that allow users to manage and share their digital identity credentials and data.
Physical Access Control
Overview: Solutions that manage physical identities and access to physical locations and spaces.
Privileged Access Management (PAM)
Overview: Systems for managing privileged (elevated) access for users, shared accounts, secrets, keys, and other high risk credentials.
Overview: The decentralized process of granting or restricting access to resources and actions in blockchain and decentralized applications, based on verified digital identities and smart contracts.
Overview: Protection of critical physical and virtual systems, networks, and assets.
Overview: Technologies and controls designed to protect data, applications, and infrastructure hosted in cloud environments from threats and vulnerabilities.
Cloud Infrastructure Entitlements Management (CIEM)
Overview: Tools to help companies manage permissions and detect excessive or risky access in cloud environments.
Cloud-Native Application Protection Platforms (CNAPP)
Overview: Integrated security solutions designed to protect cloud-native applications by combining capabilities like workload protection, cloud security posture management, and application security.
Cloud Security Posture Management (CSPM)
Overview: Continuous management, monitoring, policy enforcement, and compliance for cloud environment configurations.
Cloud Workload Protection Platforms (CWPP)
Overview: Processes and tools for securing containers and workloads within different cloud environments.
Overview: Measures and practices to protect containerized applications and their underlying infrastructure from threats and vulnerabilities throughout the container lifecycle.
Overview: Strategies and measures implemented to protect data, applications, and services hosted on Software as a Service (SaaS) platforms.
Overview: Tools used to protect email accounts and content from unauthorized access, threats, and malicious activities.
Anti-Spam and Anti-Phishing
Overview: Security measures designed to detect, block, and prevent unwanted or deceptive emails, such as spam and phishing attempts, from reaching users.
Overview: Storing, preserving, and organizing email communications for long-term retention, easy retrieval, and compliance purposes.
Overview: Encrypting email messages in transit and/or at rest to protect their content from being read by anyone other than the intended recipients.
Overview: A training tool that sends simulated phishing emails to users, testing their ability to recognize and respond to phishing attacks.
Secure Email Gateways (SEGs)
Overview: Security solutions that monitor and filter incoming and outgoing emails to protect against spam, viruses, phishing attacks, and other email-based threats.
Overview: Protecting network-connected devices such as computers, mobile phones, and tablets from threats and unauthorized access.
Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR)
Overview: Tools installed on endpoints to record key activity for monitoring and threat investigations.
Endpoint Privilege Management (EPM)
Overview: Approach and tools for protecting against execution of malware and unapproved applications on endpoints.
Endpoint Protection Platforms (EPP)
Overview: Software to protect endpoints from threats, including malware, ransomware, phishing, and data theft.
File Integrity Monitoring
Overview: Solutions to monitor changes in operating system, database, and application files.
Overview: The process of encrypting the data stored on a host, such as a server or a computer, to protect it against unauthorized access and ensure its confidentiality.
Host Intrusion Prevention System (HIPS)
Overview: Endpoint-based intrusion detection and prevention system to monitor and analyze internals and network traffic on the endpoint for prevention and detection of threats.
Mobile Device Management (MDM)
Overview: Technology used to secure, monitor, manage, and support mobile devices deployed across mobile operators, service providers, and enterprises.
Overview: Tools protect sensitive information stored on mobile devices, including smartphones, tablets, and wearables.
Overview: Practices to protect networks and data from unauthorized access, attacks, or misuse.
Overview: Services to throttle and prevent distributed denial of service attack disruptions.
Overview: Protecting the Domain Name System (DNS) from threats and ensuring the integrity and availability of DNS queries and responses.
Overview: Network security devices to regulate network traffic based on rules.
Overview: Techniques and tools to logically divide networks into security segments with specific controls based on the risk and requirements of each segment.
Network Access Control (NAC)
Overview: Systems that provide visibility and control of devices accessing a network.
Network Detection and Response (NDR)
Overview: Solutions that continuously monitor network traffic for malicious activities and anomalies, facilitating rapid detection and response to threats.
Overview: Tools that provide visibility into encrypted network traffic for monitoring and threat analysis.
Overview: Prevention of damage and unauthorized access via wireless networks.
Secure Access Service Edge (SASE)
Overview: A network architecture that combines WAN capabilities with cloud-native security functions to support dynamic, secure access to apps and data.
Cloud Access Security Brokers (CASB)
Overview: Platforms to help secure and manage use of cloud-based SaaS applications and infrastructure.
Data Loss/Leakage Prevention (DLP)
Overview: Systems to detect and prevent transmission of sensitive data.
Overview: A security approach that evaluates and verifies the trustworthiness of a device based on its attributes and configuration before granting it access.
Remote Browser Isolation (RBI)
Overview: Technology that executes web browsing sessions in a remote, isolated environment, protecting the user's device from direct exposure to potential internet threats.
Secure Web Browsers
Overview: Security-focused web browsers and isolation for enterprises.
Secure Web Gateway (SWG)
Overview: Systems to filter user-initiated internet traffic and enforce corporate and regulatory content policies.
Software-Defined Wide Area Network (SD-WAN)
Overview: A networking approach that uses software to control, optimize, and secure traffic routing across wide area networks.
Virtual Private Networks (VPN)
Overview: Systems that enable users to securely and privately browse public internet sites and access private networks across a public network.
Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA)
Overview: Products that broker access to applications and network resources based on identity and context.
Overview: Organizations providing broad industry coverage, including analysis, events, news, and more.
Overview: Firms and independent analysts covering cybersecurity companies and trends.
Overview: Authors writing books about cybersecurity topics.
Overview: Conferences and events related to cybersecurity.
Overview: Media and independent journalists covering cybersecurity news and events.
Overview: Magazines, journals, and other digital media about cybersecurity topics.
Overview: Measures and controls to protect people, assets, and facilities from physical actions and events that could cause serious loss or damage.
Connected Car Security
Overview: Protection of vehicle electronic systems, software, and data from malicious attacks.
Connected Home Security
Overview: Protection of home electronic systems, software, and data from malicious attacks.
Overview: Protecting the firmware of computers or devices from compromise.
Internet of Things (IoT) Security
Overview: Security for Internet of Things (IoT) devices and connected networks.
Operational Technology (OT) Security
Overview: Tools to monitor and control the security of Operational Technology (OT) and Industrial Control Systems (ICS).
Overview: Practices, processes, and technologies to continuously monitor, assess, and defend IT infrastructure against cybersecurity threats and incidents.
Digital Forensics and Incident Response (DFIR)
Overview: Investigation of security incidents through the collection and analysis of digital evidence and implementation of measures to manage and mitigate their impact.
Cloud Investigation and Response Automation (CIRA)
Overview: Automated data collection and analysis across multi-cloud environments for cloud incident investigations.
Overview: Tools and techniques to deceive and catch attackers by imitating real assets as traps and decoys.
Overview: Tracking and analysis of data on networks, mobile devices, computers, and storage devices for cybercrime investigations.
Overview: Collection, analysis, and dissemination of information about current and potential cyber threats and vulnerabilities.
Open Source Intelligence (OSINT)
Overview: Collection of publicly available data and information sources to provide actionable intelligence.
Overview: Collection of intelligence used to understand current or future threats to an organization.
Intrusion Detection and Prevention
Overview: Technologies that monitor network and system activities for malicious actions or policy violations and automatically take actions to block or prevent potential incidents.
Overview: Decoy data or systems strategically placed within a network to detect and alert on unauthorized access or malicious activity, functioning as an early warning system.
Example(s): Thinkst Canary
Overview: Decoy servers, systems, or data to attract and analyze attacks, helping to understand threat tactics and enhance network defenses.
Intrusion Detection System (IDS)/Intrusion Prevention System (IPS)
Overview: Systems to monitor and prevent network traffic using recognized security threat profiles.
Monitoring and Operations
Overview: Continuous surveillance and management of an organization's IT environment to detect, analyze, respond to, and mitigate cybersecurity threats and incidents.
Overview: Data analytics platforms to proactively monitor and analyze security data.
Overview: Processes and tools to extract, normalize, and enrich security data from multiple tools.
Overview: Monitoring tools for logging and measuring employee activity and productivity.
Extended Detection and Response (XDR)
Overview: Systems to aggregate and analyze data to improve threat detection and incident response.
Network Performance Monitoring
Overview: Platforms to visualize, monitor, optimize, troubleshoot, and report on the health and availability of networks.
Overview: Software for application and infrastructure monitoring, tracing, diagnostics, performance, and security.
Security Data Lakes
Overview: A centralized repository that stores large volumes of raw security data from various sources within commercial cloud data platforms, enabling advanced analytics and threat detection.
Security Orchestration, Automation, and Response (SOAR)
Overview: Automation to increase the speed, reliability, and accuracy of security operations workflows.
Security Information and Event Management (SIEM)
Overview: Tools to consolidate and correlate log data for identification of security incidents.
User and Entity Behavior Analytics (UEBA)
Overview: Processes and tools to detect threats based on patterns in user behavior.
Overview: Planning, delivering, operating, and controlling information technology services offered to customers, focusing on aligning IT processes and services with business needs.
Overview: Processes and tools for identifying and managing IT assets and their potential security risks.
Configuration Management Database (CMDB)
Overview: A database for storing information about hardware and software assets. CMDBs are primarily used for IT Service Management; however, much of the data is applicable to security operations.
Patch and System Management
Overview: Processes and tools for keeping applications and infrastructure up to date with patches to address bugs and vulnerabilities.
Vulnerability Assessment and Management
Overview: Systematically identifying, evaluating, treating, and reporting on security vulnerabilities in systems and software to minimize the risk of attacks.
Attack Surface Management (ASM)
Overview: The continuous process of identifying, cataloging, monitoring, and minimizing exposed and potentially exploitable points in an organization's environment.
Overview: Platforms for hands-on cybersecurity attack training and practice.
External Attack Surface Management (EASM)
Overview: Identifying, analyzing, and securing an organization's publicly exposed systems, services, and data to mitigate risks from external threats.
Overview: Intentional attacks on applications, networks, and infrastructure to identify exploitable vulnerabilities.
Overview: Techniques to manipulate people into exposing confidential information, allowing unauthorized access, and other human-exploitable vulnerabilities.
Vulnerability Management and Testing
Overview: Processes and tools for discovering, classifying, prioritizing, and remediating software and infrastructure vulnerabilities.
Overview: Specialized service offerings to protect digital assets, systems, and networks from cyber threats, vulnerabilities, and attacks.
Overview: Outsourcing of specific security processes or functions to a third-party provider, who manages and delivers these services under a contractual agreement.
Incident Response (IR)
Overview: specialized assistance from external experts to effectively manage and mitigate the impact of cybersecurity incidents to recover and minimize damage.
Managed Detection and Response (MDR)
Overview: Outsourced management and monitoring for advanced cybersecurity functions and systems, including threat intelligence, threat hunting, and incident response.
Managed Security Service Provider (MSSP)
Overview: Outsourced management and monitoring for basic cybersecurity functions and systems.
Overview: External management of specific cybersecurity functions (typically operational tasks).
Overview: Specialized, knowledge-based services provided by experts in security strategy, implementation, or operations to support clients' specific business needs.
Overview: Specialized cybersecurity, privacy, or risk consulting practices within small professional services firms.
Overview: Cybersecurity, privacy, and risk consulting practices within large professional services firms.
Overview: Specialized platforms that connect freelancers or job seekers with organizations or individuals looking to hire specific security skills or expertise for short-term or project-based work.
Overview: Platforms for short-term cybersecurity gigs or contracts for 1099 workers through an employer.
Overview: Public platforms for specific cybersecurity services, such as bug bounties.
The cybersecurity ecosystem mapping is free for you to use and republish (non-commercial use). Several variations in multiple file formats are available here.
The full ecosystem map was created in a resolution suitable for 24x36 posters.
A vector graphic in SVG format for dynamic resizing and printing.
A raster graphic in PNG format.
A printable graphic in PDF format.
Multiple sources were used for this meta-analysis of the cybersecurity ecosystem, including the following:
- CB Insights: The Periodic Table of Cybersecurity Startups
- CTech: Israel's 2020 Cyber Landscape
- Foundation Capital: Cybersecurity, The Next Trillion-Dollar Market?
- Gartner: Information Technology Glossary
- Henry Jiang: Cybersecurity Domain Map
- IAPP: IAPP 2021 Privacy Tech Vendor Report
- Liminal: Liminal Landscape
- Michael Tefula: The Evolution of Privacy Tech
- Momentum Cyber: CyberSCAPE
- Okta: Identity and Access Management Glossary
- Optiv: Cybersecurity Technology Map, Cybersecurity Dictionary
- Redpoint: Introducing Redpoint’s Data Security Landscapes
- UC Berkeley: SCET Explains — Cybersecurity